An adult human has 206 bones, with almost 360 joints in the body. The bones are joined with special connective tissues, including cartilage, meniscus, ligament, and synovium, to form joints to perform various movements.
There are different types of joints in the body, for example, a ball-and-socket joint, hinge joint, saddle
joint, pivot, planer found at different joints, etc.
The major joints in the body are :
● Hip joint– The hip is a ball and socket joint in which the femur head-“the ball” docks in the pelvic cavity. The joint performs a range of motion such as flexion, extension, rotation, and abduction and allows for sitting, standing, stretching, and various other joint movements.
● Sacroiliac joint– The sacroiliac joint joins sacrum to ilum. It performs limited functions.
● Knee joint– The knee is a major joint and is considered a relay station for the entire body’s weight. The main components of the knee joint are the femur, patella, tibia, and fibula -joined together in one structure with the meniscus, ligaments, and cartilage to help the joint perform flexion and extension movements (names of movements).
● Elbow Joint– The main components of the elbow are the humerus, ulna, and radius. They help perform extension and flexion movements.
● Wrist Joint– The joint joins the radius, ulna, and carpels and helps in abduction, flexion, extension, and circumduction.
● Ankle Joint– The ankle joint joins the tibia to the fibula and tarsus (cluster of seven articulating bones). It is the body’s lowermost and most important joint.
● Neck Joint– The neck joint comprises C1 and C2 cervical bones and the skull and performs the rotational movement.
● Shoulder Joint– Humerus, scapula, and clavicle are the main components of the shoulder joint. They help perform various joint actions such as elevation, protraction, depression, retraction, flexion, and extension.
The joints perform a range of motions in a body. In simple terms, they help us do what we want to do. But they may inflame, erode, or br̥eak for various reasons such as fracture, synonym tissue erosion, tissue inflammation, ligament rupture, ball flex from joint, or osteoarthritis.
The joint replacement surgery allows partial or complete replacement of joint;
WHEREAS joint reconstruction surgeries allow resurfacing of existing joints.
Types of joint reconstruction/replacement surgeries
The most common replacements are hip and knee replacements. However, joint replacements can be performed on any joint. The various types of joint reconstruction or replacement surgeries are:
There are two types of replacement partial and total. A total hip replacement replaces major components of the hip, i.e., the acetabulum and the femoral head. However, partial surgery replaces only the femoral head and resurfaces the acetabulum internally.
Hip reconstruction is also called peri acetabular osteotomy (PAO). It is performed to treat partial hip damage. It is done via arthroscopy (done with the arthroscope, an instrument with a telescopic camera showing live feed) and resurfaces spurred bones and cartilage to allow smooth bone movement.
Knee Replacement/Reconstruction OR Knee Surgeries
The knee is the most complex joint that bears total body weight. As a result, it is susceptible to various injuries and fractures. The partial or total knee replacement surgeries depend on the amount of injury. For example, torn ACL, meniscus, and lateral ligaments can be repaired by MISS knee preservation surgeries. Whereas where the full knee joint is diseased (typically due to osteoarthritis or knee fracture), a total knee replacement is performed.
The doctor might indicate a shoulder joint replacement surgery when the shoulder joint pains, swells, or fractures. Total Shoulder Replacement is done in severe cases.
Likewise, other replacement surgeries are:
● Elbow Replacement
● Wrist Joint Replacement (Wrist Arthroplasty)
● Ankle Replacement
● Finger Replacement
Surgical options for joint replacement or joint resurfacing surgeries
Arthroscopy repairs damaged soft tissues around the knee, hip, shoulder, and other joints. It also removes, repairs and rejoins broken cartilage and ligaments.
When arthroscopy is used for knee, hip and other joint replacement, it is called replacement arthroplasty. It is usually done to replace the arthritic joint surface with an orthopedic prosthesis.
Minimally Invasive (MISS) Procedures
Rather than open surgery with bigger and more invasive incisions, MISS surgery drills smaller incisions to replace the damaged joints.
Typically, used for knee joints for performing unicompartmental or partial knee replacement. In this, the internal joint surface is resurfaced or smoothened before inserting implants.
In the knee joint, the medial (inside), lateral (outside), or patellofemoral (front) compartment is resurfaced, whichever requires a prosthesis.Whereas in the hip joint- the inner acetabulum is resurfaced to place a metal cup in the hip socket. Also, the damaged hip ball is reshaped properly, to dock in the metal prosthesis.
Some other lesser-known joint surgeries include:
A bone is cut out from one part and inserted to the damaged joint. This technique helps distribute weight and correct joints’ alignment properly. In addition, it is used for treating hip dysplasia and knee misalignment.
The synovium is a soft tissue that protects and moisturizes joints. In inflammatory arthritis – the synovium wears and exposes the joint cartilage. Synovectomy removes damaged synovium and transplants synovium to restore proper joint functioning.
Fusion means unison. With the help of hardware such as pins, plates, or rods, two or more bones are fused to create a continuous joint. As the bones grow together, they stabilize the joint and hold it in place. Fusion surgeries are common in spine surgeries of fractures.
An implant lasts for 15-20 years. The implant removal, reconstruction, and replacement are called joint revisional surgery.
You might require a joint revision surgery if you had:
● An accident
● Severe joint injury
● Prothesis not able to adapt to the natural biology of joint
Orthoplanet is a bone and joint care clinic. We have many clinics across the city. We have highly qualified orthopedic consultants, skilled staff, and advanced diagnostic instruments for your best treatment experience. As an orthopedic center, we aim to provide quality and affordable orthopedic
care. For any joint-related concerns, book an appointment with us at Orthoplanet.